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Section 10: Special Shunting Signals and Indicators

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Toton signals (see [10.13 - 10.15]) were provided as hump signals at most of the new mechanised marshalling yards that were brought into service during the 1950s and 1960s under the British Railways "Modernisation Plan" to handle large volumes of freight traffic. Some of these signals were double-sided. Margam Yard, which opened in 1960, featured a form of cab signalling with a three-position indicator fitted inside the cab of the hump locomotive. This presented the driver with an indication comprising three white lights inclined at an angle corresponding to the aspect shown by the lineside hump signal. Any change of indication was accompanied by an audible signal.

At many of the yards, a series of additional hump signals was installed along the reception sidings to govern moves towards the hump. Since only one train could be propelled over the hump at a time, these additional signals were designed to apply to either of the two sidings between which they were situated. For the "hump slow" indication, the diagonal white lights were displayed at opposite angles of inclination, depending on which siding the indication was applying to [10.19]. Wing application lights ("ears") were attached to the sides of these hump signals [10.20 & 10.21]. Any aspect displayed was applicable to the siding on the same side as the illuminated application light. For consistency, a single application light was sometimes provided on a hump signal that applied only to one siding.

[10.19] Position Light Hump Signal showing 'Hump Slow' (applicable to line on right).
Area: All Areas   Usage: Medium   Status: Historical
[10.20] Left-hand Application Light (e.g. signal showing 'hump normal').
Area: All Areas   Usage: Medium   Status: Historical
[10.21] Right-hand Application Light (e.g. signal showing 'hump slow').
Area: All Areas   Usage: Medium   Status: Historical

Some of the hump signals (usually those closest to the hump on each reception siding) had 'train engine release' signals mounted below the position light head and offset to either side of the signal post. Each train engine release signal took the form of a miniature two-aspect colour light signal. A red aspect [10.22] meant "stop" and a green aspect [10.23] meant "proceed as far as the line is clear towards the next signal". These signals marked the stopping position for arriving trains. Once the locomotive had been uncoupled from its wagons, the relevant train engine release signal was cleared to allow it to run forward towards the hump and away from the reception sidings, usually via a line that bypassed the hump. The application lights attached to any hump signal (see [10.20 & 10.21]) were not lit in conjunction with the train engine release signals. Both train engine release signals were extinguished while the hump signal above was illuminated. For consistency, the train engine release signal was offset to the appropriate side of any hump signal that applied only to one siding [10.24].

[10.22] Hump Signal with two Train Engine Release Signals (both train engine release signals showing 'stop').
Area: All Areas   Usage: Medium   Status: Historical
[10.23] Hump Signal with two Train Engine Release Signals (e.g. train engine release signal applicable to line on right showing 'proceed').
Area: Toton   Usage: Low   Status: Historical
[10.24] Train Engine Release Signal (e.g. green aspect; applicable to line on left).
Area: All Areas   Usage: Medium   Status: Historical

In later installations, train engine release signals displayed a yellow aspect [10.25] instead of green. In some cases where a hump signal applied only to one siding, the train engine release signal was placed directly beneath the hump signal [10.26]. Some later train engine release signals were in the form of a position light shunting signal (see [3.72] and [3.83]).

[10.25] Hump Signal with two Train Engine Release Signals (e.g. train engine release signal applicable to line on left showing 'proceed').
Area: All Areas   Usage: Medium   Status: Historical
[10.26] Train Engine Release Signal (e.g. showing 'proceed').
Area: All Areas   Usage: Low   Status: Historical

At York No.1 Down South Yard (Hump Sidings), a position light shunting speed indicator was provided in 1955 (along with a double-sided repeater), applicable to the Hump Shunting Line. The "proceed to hump summit at normal shunting speed" aspect was three white lights in the upper quadrant (see [10.14]). The aspect meaning "proceed smartly towards hump summit" was three white lights, vertically displayed (see [10.15]). The 'stop' aspect comprised red lights on either side of the white pivot light [10.27], whereas a diagonal line of lights coloured green-white-green [10.28] meant "set back from the hump summit".

[10.27] Position Light Hump Signal showing 'Stop' / Loading/Unloading Indicator showing 'Stop'.
Area: All Areas   Usage: High   Status: Obsolescent
[10.28] Position Light Hump Signal showing 'Set Back from Hump Summit'.
Area: York   Usage: Low   Status: Historical

Some of the special semaphore shunting signals on the North Eastern Region (see [10.6 - 10.8]) were replaced by Toton signals in the late 1950s. The angles and colours of the lights in each new indication corresponded with those of the old signals. The 'stop' aspect comprised red lights on either side of the white pivot light, in a horizontal line (see [10.27]). Three white lights were displayed at 45° (see [10.19]) for "draw forward" and green lights on either side of the white pivot light, also at 45° but inclined the opposite way [10.29], for "set back slowly". Some of the new signals were additionally able to display three white lights vertically (see [10.15]), meaning "set back".

[10.29] Position Light Signal showing 'Set Back Slowly'.
Area: North Eastern Region   Usage: Low   Status: Historical

When the Glasgow Central station area was resignalled in 1961, special stencil type banner signals were provided on all the platform starting signals. These normally displayed no indication. When the main signal cleared to a yellow aspect (see [2.97]) and the banner was illuminated [10.30], it signified that a miniature yellow 'proceed' aspect (see [3.82]) was being exhibited at the next main signal. The banner indication helped to ensure quick clearance of the platform line, particularly if the movement was being propelled. The banners were removed from the signals in 1971.

[10.30] Stencil Type Banner Signal.
Area: Glasgow Central   Usage: Medium   Status: Historical

Tinsley Marshalling Yard, near Sheffield, opened in 1965. At this site, the position light hump signals displayed just two indications, "stop humping" [10.31] and "proceed" [10.32], both indications comprising a line of five white lights.

[10.31] Position Light Hump Signal showing 'Stop Humping' / Creep Indicator showing 'Stop'.
Area: Tinsley / Fiddlers Ferry   Usage: Medium   Status: Uncertain
[10.32] Position Light Hump Signal showing 'Proceed' / Creep Indicator showing 'Proceed'.
Area: Tinsley / Fiddlers Ferry   Usage: Medium   Status: Uncertain

From around the mid 1960s, changes in goods traffic patterns rendered the large mechanised marshalling yards redundant. Concurrent with this was an emerging need for the rapid loading and unloading of long trains carrying minerals, especially coal. The trains concerned need to be fitted with slow speed control. Special signals evolved for use at terminals where loading or unloading takes place under these circumstances. Usually, a series of identical signals are located at intervals along the line used for loading or unloading, all displaying the same indication at the same time. The signals are positioned in such a way that the driver always has a clear view of at least one signal at all times under normal conditions of visibility.

To deal with the loading and unloading of "Merry-Go-Round" (MGR) coal trains, the Scottish Region initially used colour light signals with special meanings. A green aspect (see [10.12]) means "proceed forward". The train may proceed within normal visibility limits. A yellow aspect (see [10.10]) means "proceed forward with caution at ½ m.p.h.". Slow speed control needs to be engaged and the driver must be prepared to stop. A red aspect (see [10.9]) means "stop immediately, even though not at signal". At certain installations, signals may display a flashing red aspect [10.33]. When this is displayed, the driver must stop the train (if it is moving) and set back at ½ m.p.h. At Monktonhall Colliery, the flashing red aspect was followed by a short steady red aspect on which the driver took no action. This was followed by a flashing yellow aspect [10.34] lasting about 6 or 7 seconds, then a steady yellow aspect. The train must then stop reversing and obey the yellow aspect. Not every signal is capable of displaying all of these aspects.

[10.33] Loading/Unloading Signal showing Flashing Red Aspect.
Area: Scottish Region   Usage: Medium   Status: Obsolescent
[10.34] Loading/Unloading Signal showing Flashing Yellow Aspect.
Area: Scottish Region   Usage: Low   Status: Historical